Tungau Penyebab Buah Burik Jeruk Siam Dan Pengendaliannya

(Mite which Cause Russetting to Tangerine cv. Siam Fruit and It’s Control)

Soemartono Sosromarsono
Institut Pertanian Bogor

ABSTRAK
Awal tahun 2004 diinformasikan adanya kerusakan hama pada buahjeruk Siam yang bergejala burik. Berdasarkan morfologinya, penyebabnya termasuk kelompok famili Eriophyidae dan dikenal dengan nama umum tungau puru (gall mites), dari kerusakan yang ditimbulkan, dikelompokkan dalam jenis Tungau Karat Jeruk/TKJ (citrus rust mite) dari spesies Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead). Serangan terutama ditemukan pada jeruk manis, jeruk jepun (siam), japansche citroen (JC), Rough Lemon (RL), dan jeruk besar. Pengendalian TKJ masih didominasi oleh pengendalian kimiawi dengan hembusan tepung belerang (S) 2 minggu sekali dan diulang sebanyak 4 kali, diharapkan kerusakan buah tidak terjadi. Penggunaan dengan bubur California (1 :30) dengan selang 2 minggu pada 3,5 bulan setelah pembuahan dapat diaplikasikan juga. Pestisida lain yang dilaporkan efektif untuk TKJ adalah oxythioquinox, aldicarb, carbosulfan, fenbutatinoxida, difluloenzuron, abamectin, dan amitraz serta beberapa fungisida yaitu mancozeb, zineb, maneb dan captafal. Pengendalian hayati secara alami beragam terutama dari golongan Arthropoda dan Fungi. Predator yang diketahui efektif sebagai musuh alami adalah Amblyseius spp., Famili Stigmaeidae, Phytoseius spp., Typhlodromus spp., Famili Cecidomyidae, Dolichopodidae, dan Syrphidae serta masih banyak yang lain. Fungi Paecilomyces spp., Verticillum spp. dan Hirsutella sp. merupakan jenis-jenis patogenik terhadap tungau TKJ. Pengendalian hama terpadu sangat diperlukan dengan meningkatkan pengetahuan dasar terhadap biologi dan ekologi hama, termasuk perilaku, dinamika populasi dan musuh alami hama. Kondisi faktor lingkungan fisik dan biotik dalam ekosistem pertanian terkait perlu juga dipahami dengan baik. Mengingat aspek fasilitas sumber daya penelitian, sebaiknya penelitian dilaksanakan dalam bentuk kerjasama antar lembaga.
Kata kunci: Tungau, burik buah,jeruk Siam, pengendalian.

ABSTRACT
Damage of tangerine cv Siam disease which have fruit russetting informed early in 2004. According to morphology including family group of Eriophyidae and known by generic name of gall mite, from damage inflicted it is categorized in citrus rust mite (CRM) of Phyllocoptruta oleivora species (Ashmead). Attack especially found on orange, tangerine, japansche citroen, rough lemon, and pummelo. CRM control is still dominated by chemical control with sulphur flour blowing two weeks at once and repeated at four times, no fruit damage expect to occur. Control was conducted on three and a half months after fruiting or by using California porridge (1 :30) with two weeks interval on three and a half months after fruiting. Other pesticides effectively reported for CRM were oxythioquionox, aldicarb, carbosulfan, fenbutatinoxida, difluenzuron, abamectin and amitraz as well as some fungicide such as mancozeb, zineb, maneb and captafal. Natural biology control varied particularly from Arthropoda class and Fungi. Predators which effectively known as natural enemy were Amblyseius sp; Family Stigmaeidae, Phytoseius sp; Typhlodromus sp; Family Cecidomyidae, Dolichopodidae, Syrphidae and still many others. Paecilomyces sp; Verticillum sp; and Hirsutella sp fungi were the pathogenic types to CRM mites. Integrated pest management is extremely required by increasing the basic knowledge to biology and pest ecology including behavior, population dynamic, and pest natural enemy. Physical environment and biotic factors condition in related agriculture ecosystem are necessary to understand rightly. Regarding the aspect of research facility resource, it is better to do research in collaboration within related institutes.
Keywords : Mite, fruit russetting, tangerine cv. Siam, control.

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