Studi Poliembrioni dan Penentuan Tingkat Kemasakan Fisiologis Benih Japansche Citroen Berdasarkan Warna Kulit Buah

(Studies On Polyembryony and Determination of Physiological Maturity of Japansche Citroen Seed Based On Fruit Skin Color)
Jurnal Hortikultura Volume 23 No. 3, 2013

Andrini, A1, Suharsi, TK2, dan Surahman, M2
1Balai Penelitian Tanaman Jeruk dan Buah Subtropika, Jl. Raya Tlekung No 1, Junrejo, Batu 65301
2Institut Pertanian Bogor, Jl. Meranti, Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor 16680

 

ABSTRAK

Buah jeruk JC harus dipetik pada saat masak fisiologis untuk mendapatkan benih bermutu tinggi. Pada umumnya benih masak fisiologis saat berat kering benih optimum dan vigor optimum. Sementara itu benih JC bersifat poliembrioni, diduga dapat memengaruhi mutu benih. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan informasi tentang karakter poliembrioni, menentukan tingkat kemasakan fisiologi benih dan mengetahui pengaruh tingkat kemasakan benih terhadap multiple seedling dan off type pada benih JC. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Terpadu, Nurseri, dan Kebun Percobaan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Jeruk dan Buah Subtropika, pada Bulan Juli-Oktober 2012. Analisis deskriptif digunakan untuk mengetahui karakter poliembrioni benih JC. Percobaan di nurseri menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok lengkap satu faktor tingkat kemasakan buah dengan tiga ulangan. Pengamatan terhadap beberapa variabel dilakukan untuk mengetahui mutu fisik, fisiologis, genetis, dan jumlah semaian. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa benih JC mempunyai 1–6 embrio yang dapat tumbuh menjadi 1–4 semaian. Berat kering benih JC tidak dipengaruhi secara nyata oleh tingkat kemasakan buah karena adanya keragaman tingkat kemasakan embrio di dalam benih. Tingkat kemasakan fisiologis benih JC dapat ditandai dengan indeks vigor, kecepatan tumbuh, dan daya berkecambah optimum yang diperoleh pada saat buah berwarna kuning lebih dari 90% merata dengan karakter warna kulit benih krem kecoklatan dan embrio dominan krem. Tingkat kemasakan buah tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap persentase multiple seedling dan persentase semaian off type. Penelitian lebih lanjut diperlukan untuk mendapatkan multiple seedling yang banyak dan semaian off type yang sedikit.
Katakunci : Japansche Citroen; Kemasakan fisiologis; Multiple seedling; Off type

ABSTRACT

JC citrus fruit should be picked at the time physiological maturity to get a high quality seed. In general, physiological maturity seeds reached at the seed dry weight and vigor optimum. While the seeds are polyembryony that might impact on quality of seeds. So that this research needs to be done. The aim of this research were to get information about polyembryony, to determine physiological maturity of JC seed, to know fruits maturity affect to multiple seedling and off type percentage. This research was conducted at Integrated Laboratory, Nursery, and Experimental Field, Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Institute, on July to October 2012. Descriptive analysis was used for identification polyembryonic. Experiment in nursery using one factor randomized complete block design with three replications. Observations on some variables was conducted to determine the quality of the physical, physiological, genetic, and number of seedlings. The results showed that JC have 1–6 embryos per seed but its only have 1–4 survive seedlings per seed. JC seed dry weight was not affected by seed maturity because of embryos maturity varians in a seed. Seed physiological maturity was attain in optimum vigor index, speed germination, and germination capacity. JC seed physiological maturity was reached in fruits with more than 90% fruit skin color is yellow. Seed maturity base on fruits maturity level doesn’t affect significantly on percentage of multiple and off type seedling. Further research is needed to do to get a lot of multiple seedling and slightly off type.
Keywords : Japansche Citroen; Physiological maturity; Multiple seedling; Off type

Artikel lengkap bisa didownload disini atau disini

Agenda

no event