Potensi Trichoderma spp. sebagai Agens Pengendali Fusarium spp. Penyebab Penyakit Layu pada Tanaman Stroberi (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.)

[Potential of Trichoderma spp. as a Control Agents of Fusarium spp. Pathogens on Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.)]

Jurnal Hortikultura, Vol. 25 No. 4, Desember 2015: 331-339

Dwiastuti, ME1), Fajri, MN2), dan Yunimar1)

1)Balai Penelitian Tanaman Jeruk dan Buah Subtropika, Jln. Raya Junrejo No. 1, Tlekung, Batu, Jawa Timur, Indonesia 65301

2)Jurusan Biologi, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Jawa Timur, Indonesia

 

ABSTRAK.

Layu yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium spp. merupakan salah satu penyakit penting tanaman stroberi (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.) di daerah subtropika, yang dapat menggagalkan panen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mempelajari potensi Trichoderma spp. dalam mengendalikan Fusarium spp. Isolat Trichoderma spp. diisolasi dari rizosfer tanaman stroberi dan Fusarium spp. diisolasi dari tanaman stroberi yang mengalami layu fusarium. Isolat cendawan dimurnikan, dikarakterisasi, dan dibandingkan dengan isolat cendawan acuan. Uji antagonis dilakukan secara in vitro dan in vivo. Uji in vitro dilakukan dengan metode dual culture dan slide culture. Uji in vivo dilakukan di rumah kasa menggunakan dua varietas stroberi, yaitu Santung serta California. Hasil penelitian in vitro memperoleh dua jenis isolat cendawan antagonis, yaitu Trichoderma sp.1 dan Trichoderma sp.2, dan dua jenis cendawan patogen Fusarium, yaitu Fusarium sp.1 dan Fusarium sp.2. Isolat Trichoderma sp.1 memiliki kemampuan antagonisme lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan isolat Trichoderma sp.2. Isolat Trichoderma sp.1 mampu menghambat pertumbuhan Fusarium sp.1 dan Fusarium sp.2 secara berturut- turut, yaitu 49,7% dan 49,6%. Isolat Trichoderma sp.2 mampu menghambat pertumbuhan Fusarium sp.1 dan Fusarium sp.2 lebih rendah, yaitu sebesar 45,8% dan 43,4%. Mekanisme antagonis yang terjadi antara cendawan antagonis dan patogen pada uji in vitro, yaitu pembelitan dan intervensi hifa. Hasil pada uji in vivo pada perlakuan Trichoderma sebelum Fusarium menunjukkan keefektifan pengendalian paling baik (41,72%) dibanding perlakuan lain. Varietas Santung lebih tahan terhadap serangan patogen dibandingkan varietas California. Implikasi dari hasil penelitian ini adalah, agens hayati Trichoderma spp. lebih optimal digunakan sebagai pencegahan (preventif) tanpa menunggu tanaman terinfeksi penyakit layu fusarium.

Katakunci: Stroberi; Fusarium spp.; Trichoderma spp.; Antagonisme

ABSTRACT.

Fusarium wilt is one of the important disease of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.) in subtropical region, which can reduce yields of 40%. This research aimed to study the potential of Trichoderma spp. in controlling Fusarium spp.. Trichoderma spp. isolated from the rhizosphere of strawberry plants, whereas Fusarium spp. isolated from strawberry plant which infected by fusarium wilt. Fungal isolates purified, characterized, and compared with the reference fungal isolate. Antagonists test was treated with in vitro and in vivo test. In vitro study was conducted using a dual culture and culture slides. In vivo test conducted in screen house using two varieties of strawberries Santung and California. Results of in vitro studies to obtain two types isolates antagonistic fungi namely Trichoderma sp.1 and Trichoderma sp.2, and two pathogenic fungi namely Fusarium sp.1 and Fusarium sp.2. Trichoderma sp.1 isolates have the ability Trichoderma sp.1 higher than the Trichoderma sp.2. Isolates of Trichoderma sp.1 was able to inhibit the growth of Fusarium sp.1 and Fusarium sp.2 respectively 49.7% and 49.6% but isolate of Trichoderma sp.2 was able to inhibit the growth of Fusarium sp.1 and Fusarium sp.2 only 45.8% and 43.4%. Antagonist mechanisms occured in antagonist and pathogen fungus in in vitro test are entangled and intervention of mycelium. The results of in vivo test demonstrate that the best effectiveness of the treatment of Trichoderma applied before Fusarium inoculation (41.72%) if compared to other treatments. Santung variety was more resistant to Fusarium attack than California. The implication, biological agents of Trichoderma spp. optimally used as a preventive control.

Keywords: Strawberry; Fusarium spp.; Trichoderma spp.; Antagonism

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