Penyakit Huanglongbing Tanaman Jeruk (Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus): Ancaman dan Strategi Pengendalian

(Huanglongbing Disease (Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus) on Citrus: Threats and Control Strategy)
Pengembangan Inovasi Pertanian Vol. 8 No. 1 Maret 2015: 21-32

Nurhadi
Balai Penelitian Tanaman Jeruk dan Buah Subtropika

ABSTRAK
Huanglongbing (HLB), di Indonesia dikenal sebagai citrus vein phloem degeneration (CVPD), adalah penyakit paling penting pada tanaman jeruk sejak awal 1960-an. Upaya pengendalian penyakit telah dilakukan melalui eradikasi total maupun selektif dan infus antibiotik, namun belum berhasil. Selanjutnya, pada tahun 1985-1990 diimplementasikan program nasional melalui (1) produksi bibit jeruk bebas penyakit, (2) manajemen kebun yang baik, dan (3) pengendalian penyakit yang efisien untuk melindungi tanaman baru dari infeksi ulang. Program tersebut berhasil mewujudkan industri jeruk modern dan meningkatkan produktivitas dari 10 t/ha pada tahun 1970-1993 menjadi 35 t/ha pada 1994-2012. Namun, luas panen menurun dari 65 menjadi 45 ribu ha terutama akibat serangan HLB. Hasil penelitian HLB selama satu dekade terakhir memberikan pemahaman yang komprehensif tentang karakteristik epidemi HLB. Pengembangan pengendalian HLB diarahkan untuk memformulasikan strategi pengendalian yang logis, realistis, dan efektif guna mendukung program pengembangan kawasan jeruk di 22 provinsi. Strategi pengendalian HLB meliputi: (1) penyusunan peta kesesuaian agroekologi dan endemisitas HLB untuk lokasi pengembangan jeruk, (2) pengembangan point of care sebagai pusat pemantauan dan penanganan dini HLB, (3) pengembangan sistem pemantauan HLB dan vektor D. citri berbasis komputer untuk memfasilitasi tindakan eliminasi, sanitasi, dan pengelolaan sumber inokulum, (4) pembangunan jaringan antara point of care dan petani/kelompok tani dalam sosialisasi pengendalian penyakit; dan (5) sosialisasi Peraturan Menteri Pertanian No. 39 Tahun 2006 tentang Produksi, Sertifikasi, dan Distribusi Benih Bina. Strategi terakhir dimaksudkan untuk menjamin ketersediaan bibit jeruk bebas penyakit tepat jumlah, tepat waktu, dan tepat varietas.
Kata kunci: Jeruk, huanglongbing, citrus vein phloem degeneration, pengendalian penyakit

ABSTRACT
Huanglongbing, known in Indonesia as citrus vein phloem degeneration, is the most serious disease threatening Indonesian citriculture since the early 1960s. Past efforts to control the disease included selective eradication and antibiotic infusion, but had no success. In 1985-1990, a national program has been implemented based on (1) the large-scale production of virusfree plants, (2) introduction of improved orchard management procedures, and (3) development of efficient pest and disease control measures to protect new plantings from reinfection. Such a program offers the creating a modern citrus industry and is able to increase citrus productivity from 10 t/ha in 1970-1993 to 35 t/ha in 1994-2012. However, harvested area gradually decreased from 65 to 45 thousand hectares, mainly due to HLB. Research achievements on HLB over the last decade have provided a more comprehensive understanding of HLB epidemic characteristics. Development of HLB control strategy aimed to formulate the control strategies of HLB disease logically, realistically and effectively to support the success of citrus development program in 22 provinces. Strategies for HLB control include: (1) development of a suitability map for citrus AEZ and endemicity of HLB for determining the suitability of the target area, (2) development of point of care as a center of monitoring and early treatment, (3) development of computer-based monitoring system to facilitate elimination measures, sanitation and patotop management, and monitoring and control of D. citri, (4) building networks between the point of care and farmer groups in the socialization of disease control strategies; and (5) improving the Regulation of the Minister of Agriculture No. 39 in 2006 regarding to the Production, Certification and Distribution of Foundation Seeds. This last strategy is intended to better ensure the availability of disease-free citrus seedlings in the right amount, time and varieties.
Keywords: Citrus, huanglongbing, citrus vein phloem degeneration, pest control

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