Pengaruh Viroid Exocortis terhadap pertumbuhan bibit jeruk manis (Citrus sinensis L.) komersial

(The influence of Exocortis Viroid to the seedlings growth ofsome sweet orange (Citrus sisnensis L.) varieties)
Jurnal Hortikultura, vol. 7( 1 )557-560, 1997

Roesmiyanto, Anang T. dan Martinus Sugiyarto

Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Karangploso

ABSTRAK
Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh Citrus Viroid Exocortis (CEV) terhadap pertumbuhan berbagai jenis bibit jeruk manis komersial dilakĀ¬sanakan di Sub Balai Penelitian Hortikultura Tlekung pada periode 1994/1995. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap tiga ulangan dengan perlakuan tanaman diinokulasi dengan isolat CEV No. EI17 dan tanpa inokulasi, pada 4 jenis bibit jeruk manis Punten, Pacitan, VLO dan WNO berbatang bawah JC dan RL. Dilakukan pengamatan pertumbuhan tanaman. Untuk mengetahui keberhasilan inokulasi CEV dilakukan indeksing dengan Etrog Citron dan tes warna floroglusinol. Sampai dengan 28 minggu setelah perlakuan belum tampak perbedaan pertumbuhan antara bibit jeruk yang diperlakukan dengan bibit sehat. Ditemukan suatu fenomena bahwa isolat CEV E 117 yang digunakan cenderung merangsang pertumbuhan yang lebih baik pada semua bibit jeruk yang diperlakukan dengan batang bawah JC dan jenis VLO dan Punten yang berbatang bawah RL. Hanya pada bibit jeruk berbatang bawah RL jenis WNO dan Pacitan, CEV memberikan efek penghambatan pertumbuhan. Hasil uji mikroskopis dengan pewarnaan floroglusiĀ¬nol menunjukkan adanya kelainan pertumbuhan dan kerusakan sel-sel sklerenkim dan metasilim daun jeruk yang terinfeksi CEV dengan gejala visual berupa epinasti daun dan penghambatan pertumbuhan. Penelitian lebih lanjut diperlukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh CEV terhadap pertumbuhan vegetatif serta produksi.
Kata kunci: Citrus sinensis; Sifat abnormal; Viroid exocortis.

ABSTRACT
The plant material for HDP is seedling of dwarfing citrus which produced by technology advantages of Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEV) application. An experiment had been done in Horticulture Research Station of Tlekung during the period of 1994/1995, in order to observe the influence of CEV inoculation on the growth of some commercial sweet orange seedlings. The design of the experiment was Completely Randomized Design with innoculation treatment (inoculated and uninoculated) of sweet orange seedlings by CEV, applied on 4 varieties of commercial sweet orange (Punten, VLO, WNO, and Pacitan) grafted onto 2 rootstocks of JC and RL, with 4 plants for each treatment. CEV material was E 117 of Punt en collection. The succesfully of CEV penetration is indexed by using of Etrog Citron indicator plant and the colour test of phloroglucinol. Result of the experiment for 28 weeks after treated showed that lack of significant in growth performance between the inoculated and uninoculated plant was noted. It was found a phenomena that CEV isolat of E 117 tended to stimulate better growth for plant growth in inoculated citrus seedlings with JC rootstock and Punten and VLO cultivars on RL rootstock, compared with uninoculated citrus seedling. Exception was observed on Pacitan and WNO with RL rootstock, that CEV isolat of E 117 suppresed plant growth of those varieties. Result of microscopic phloroglucinol colour test showed that the presentation of growth abnormalities and destruction of schlerenchyme and metaxyleem cells on CEV infected citrus which showed visual symptoms of leaf epinasty and growth supressed. Further research is needed to evaluate the effect of CEV on the vegetative and generative growth and the production.
Key words: Citrus sinensis; Abnormal behavior; Dwarfing efect; Citrus exocortis viroid.

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