Jamur Entomopatogen: Potensi, Kendala Dan Strategi Pengembangannya Sebagai Agens Pengendali Biologi Kutu Daun Jeruk (Diaphorina citri Kuw.)

(Entomopathogenic Mold : Potency, Problems and Development Strategy as Biological Control Agents for Citrus Psylla of D. citri Kuw.)

M.E. Dwiastuti
Loka Penelitian Tanaman Jeruk Dan Hortikultura Subtropik, Batu

ABSTRAK
Psilid Diaphorina citri Kuw. merupakan hama penting pada jeruk yang berperan sebagai vektor penyakit Citrus Vein Phloem Degeneration (CVPD). Berbagai cara pengendalian telah dicoba antara lain secara kimiawi baik dari jenis insektisida kontak maupun sistemik dengan saputan batang ataupun dengan monitoring dan pemasangan traping. Namun, outbreak dan penularan CVPD masih terus berlangsung meskipun tanaman telah menggunakan bibit jeruk bebas penyakit. Bahkan monochrotopos yang direkomendasikan beberapa waktu lalu telah ditarik dari peredaran karena meninggalkan residu serta munculnya kasus kematian pada tan.aman terinfeksi Diplodia yang disaput insektisida tersebut. Oleh karena itu alternatif pengendalian D. citri terse but diperlukan. Jamur pathogen serangga atau entomopatogen merupakan salah satu musuh alami D. citri yang dianjurkan untuk mengendalikan hama tersebut. Penelitian awal mengenai topik itu sedang dilakukan. Jarnur-jamur entomopatogen yang berpotensi sebagai agens pengendali biologi D. citri antara lain : Hirsutella citriformis, Beauvaria basiana dan Metarrizhium anisopliae. Berdasarkan pengalaman dan referensi, terdapat beberapa kendala dalam teknik dasar untuk mengeksploitasi pathogen serangga sebagai agens pengendali biologi serangga homoptera umumnya dan D. citri pada khususnya serta mengembangkannya sebagai pestisida mikroba baru yang efektif. Serangkaian pendekatan yang holistik dan pengetahuan biologi musuh alami potensial sangat diperlukan sebagai strategi untuk mengembangkan pestisida mikroba baru yang efektif.
Kata kunci: Jeruk, Diaphorina citri Kuw., entomopatogen, jamur, pengendalian biologi.

ABSTRACT
Diaphorina citri Kuw. was a type of important pest of citrus crop which acted as the vector of Citrus Vein Phloem Degeneration (CVPD) disease. There have been a lot of methods applied such as chemically method through contact insecticide as well as systemic method through stem shrouding or monitoring and trapping. However, CVPD’s outbreak and spreading still became a serious problem on citrus cultivation although diseases free citrus seed already being used. Moreover, monochrotopos which have been recommended as insecticide against this type of mite was stopped to use because it leaves residue and causing the death of the Diplodia infected crop which is shrouded by that insecticide. It was reason that why an alternative method on D.citri control is needed. Insect pathogenic mold or entomo-pathogen was a type of natural enemy against D. citri which have been suggested to apply in controlling this kind of pest. Initial research concerning this topic is underway. Entomopathogenic molds which are potentially acted as biological control agent of D. citri consist of: Hirsutella citriormis, Beauvaria basiana and Metarrizhium anisopliae. Based on experiences and references, there were some barriers in basic technique of insect pathogen exploitation as biological control agents against homopterous insect in general, and D. citri in specific, eventually on their development as new highly effective microbe pesticide. A series of holistic approaching method and knowledge on potential biological natural enemy are needed as a strategy to develop a new highly effective microbe pesticide.
Keywords: Citrus, Diaphorina citri Kuw., Entomopathogenic mold, biological control agent.

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