Induksi Embriogenesis Somatik Jeruk Siam Pontianak (Citrus suhuiensis L.) Dan Manis Pacitan (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) Dari Biji Abortus Dan Normal

(Somatic Embryogenesis Induction of Siam Pontianak (Citrus suhuiensis L.) and Manis Pacitan (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) from Aborted and Normal Seeds)

Prosiding Seminar Nasional Jeruk Tropika Indonesia, Batu, 28-29 Juli 2005, 122-130

Dita Agisimanto1, Ismiyati Sutarto2, dan Arry Supriyanto1
1Balai Penelitian Tanaman Jeruk Dan Buah Subtropika
2PPPTIR-BATAN

Abstrak:
Protokol embriogenesis somatik genotipe-genotipe jeruk diperlukan untuk memproduksi bibit dengan mendukung program pemuliaan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan informasi respon kultur biji abortus dan normal pada media embriogenesis. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan Institute of Plant Breeding, Palermo-Italia tahun 2003. Buah jeruk muda Siam Pontianak dan Manis Pacitan dipanen pada umur 30-90 hari setelah anthesis. Buah disterilisasi dan kulitnya dibuka di bawah kondisi steril. Biji abortus dan normal diambil dari buah dan dipindah pada petridish steril. Integumen biji dibuang dengan bantuan stereo mikroskop, bagian nucelus ditanam pada media MS yang diperkaya dengan 500 mg/l malt ekstraks, 13,3 µM BAP, 146 mM sukrosa dan 10 g agar. Pembentuk kalus diperoleh pada 15 bari setelah inkubasi. Persentase explan embriogenik dan jumlah embrio dihitung 8 minggu setelah inkubasi. Media embriogenesis jeruk yang digunakan memberikan respon positif terhadap pertumbuhan kalus dan regenerasi embrio somatik siam pontianak (88%, 12,5%) dan manis pacitan (68%,82,4%).
Kata kunci : Embriogenesis, nucelus, siam pontianak, manis pacitan, kultur biji abortus, biji normal.

Abstract:
Somatic Embryogenesis protocols of Citrus genotypes are required for producing high quality of vegetative propagation materials and breeding programs. The objective of this research was to obtain responses information of aborted and normal seed expiants on embryogenesis medium. Experiments were conducted in Tissue Culture Laboratory of Institute of Plant Breeding, Palermo-Italy in 2003. Open pollinated fruits of Siam Pontianak and Manis Pacitan were harvested 30-90 days after anthesis. The fruits were surface-sterilized and the skins were peeled off. The fruits were cut open under sterile conditions. Aborted and normal seed then dissected and transferred to sterile Petri dishes. Aborted and normal seeds integument were removed with the aid of a stereo microscope and placed on to the nutrients and vitamins of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 500 mg/l malt extract and 13.3 µM 6-benzylamino purine. Sucrose (146 mM) was used as the carbon source. Calli formations were scored 15 days after initial treatment. Percentages of embryogenic nucellus explants and number of embryos per responsive nucellus were counted after 8 weeks of incubation. Embryogenesis tested medium of citrus were showed positive responses to callus formation and embryos regeneration of siam pontianak (88%, 12,5%) and manis pacitan (68%, 82,4%) respectively.
Keywords : Embryogenesis, nucellus, siam pontianak, manis pacitan, aborted, normal seed.

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