Hubungan Kualitas Buah Jeruk Varietas Siam Banjar (Citrus suhuiensis Tan.) Dengan Sifat Kimia Tanah dan Air di Lahan Pasang Surut

(Relationship Between Quality of Citrus Var. Siam Banjar (Citrus suhuiensis Tan.) with Soil and Water Characteristic on Swampy Land)

Prosiding Seminar Nasional Jeruk 2007, Yogyakarta, 13 – 14 Juni 2007, hal. 324-338

Sumantri
Balai Pengawasan Dan Sertifikasi Benih Tanaman Pangan Dan Hortikultura Banjarbaru

Abstrak
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui (a) beberapa sifat kimia tanah dan air (b) kualitas buah jeruk varietas Siam Banjar (c) hubungan antara sifat kimia tanah dan kimia air dengan kualitas buah jeruk Total Soluble Solution (TSS) atau Kadar Gula yang dihasilkan pada lahan pasang surut. Penelitian dilakukan di daerah sentra jeruk Siam Banjar Desa Tarantang Kecamatan Mandastana dan Desa Sungai Kambat Kecamatan Cerbon di Kabupaten Barito Kuala selama enam bulan. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan metode survei. Survei dilakukan dengan tahap prasurvei dan survei. Parameter sifat kimia tanah dan air adalah pH tanah dan air, daya hantar listrik tanah dan air, sulfat, magnesium dan kalsium. Parameter kualitas tanah yang diamati Total Soluble Solution (TSS)/Kadar Gula, Kadar Asam, sari buah jeruk (juice) serta rasio antara Total Soluble Solution (TSS)/Kadar Gula dengan Kadar Asam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (a) Kandungan unsur hara pada masing-masing tipe sangat bervariasi. Unsur hara Mg bervariasi dari tinggi pada tipe A sampai rendah pada tipe B dan C. Unsur hara kalsium di tipe A rendah sedangkan tipe B dan C sangat rendah. Selanjutnya pH tanah pada lahan tipe A, B dan C tergolong sangat masam, untuk DHL tanah semua tipe lahan tergolong rendah. Sifat kimia tanah yakni sulfat pada tipe A lebih rendah dibanding tipe B dan C. (b) Kualitas buah jeruk varietas Siam Banjar yang ditunjukkan oleh kandungan TSS atau kadar gula di tipe A nyata lebih tinggi (14,88%) dari pada tipe C (11,89%) dan B (11,59%). Rasio TSS/kadar asam dan kadar asam di tipe A lebih tinggi dari pada tipe B dan C. (c) Hubungan sifat kimia tanah dan kimia air secara bersama-sama mempengaruhi TSS yaitu DHL tanah dan pH air.
Kata kunci : Siam Banjar, lahan pasang surut, sifat kimia tanah dan air, kualitas buah jeruk.

Abstract
The research were to find out (a) several characteristic of soil and water (b) the quality of citrus var. Siam Banjar (c) relation between soil and water characteristic and quality of citrus grown on tidal area. The research conducted on Siam Banjar production center, Tarantang and Sungai Kambat Village for six months with pre and survey method. The nature of soil and water characterized by pH, electric conductivity, sulphate, Magnesium and Calcium, while the quality of citrus measured as Total Soluble Solution (TSS), acid content, juiciness and ratio sugar/acid. The research showed that (a) high variability of nutrient status on each soil type. Magnesium status was high on type A and low on type B and C. Calcium status was low on type A and very low on type B and C. pH were very acid on all three type of soil, electric conductivity were low on all three type of soil. Sulphate was lower on type A than that on type B and C. (b) the quality of citrus var. Siam Banjar measured as TSS was higher on type A (14,88%) than that on type C (11,89%) and type B (11,59%), while ratio of sugar/acid of citrus var. Siam Banjar grown on type A also higher than that on citrus var. Siam Banjar grown on type B and C. (c) soil and water characteristic affected the TSS. The research also shows the electricity conductivity and pH of soil and water was most dominant factor affecting the TSS.
Keywords : Siam Banjar, tidal land, chemistry of soil and water, citrus quality.

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