Application of K, Ca, and Mg on Peel Thickness and Fruit Cracking Incidence of Citrus

Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences, ISSUE 3(87): pp. 45-56, 2019

 

Hardiyanto, Friyanti Devy Nirmala

Abstract

Citrus cv. Terigas (Citrus reticulata) genetically has a fragile fruit peel that occurs from young up to mature stage which causing farmers to suffer detrimental lost in production. The addition of K, Mg, and Ca can reduce the number of damaged fruit. This research was conducted at the Tlekung Experimental Field, Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Institute (ICSFRI) in January – October 2017, using 4-year-old Mandarin cv. Terigas and Tangerine cv. Pontianak citrus plants. The aims of this study was to evaluate the effect of K, Ca and Mg fertilizers on nutrient uptake in plants, fruit development, and the percentage of cracking fruit on Mandarin cv. Terigas (Citrus reticulata) and Tangerine cv. Pontianak (C. reticulata Blanco.). The experiment was carried out in a Nested Design. The Ist factor was the application of K, Ca and Mg through foliar spray, consisted of P1 (Control/without fertilizing), P2 (recommended fertilization), P3 (P2 + 3 g l-1 K + 1 g l-1 Ca + 1 g l-1 Mg), P4 (P2 + 6 g l-1 K + 2 g l-1 Ca + 2 g l-1 Mg), and P5 (P2 + 6 g l-1 KNO3). The second one was the variety, Mandarin cv. Terigas and Tangerine cv. Pontianak as a control. The treatment was repeated 3 times with a unit treatment of 5 plants. Observations were made on macro nutrient uptake on leaves and fruit skin, development of fruit size, number of cracking fruit/plant, size of fruit diameter, and thickness of fruit peel. The results showed that the cracking incidence of Terigas fruits was caused by the thinning of the fruit peels, where the thinner the peel of the fruit, the more fruit would be cracked (Y = 20.501 to 9, 9702 X, R2 = 67.5%), while the thickness of the skin was not influenced by nutrients absorbed in the fruit peel. Treatment P2 to P5 was able to suppress fruit cracking on Terigas Mandarin between 22 – 56.1% at age of 22 weeks and 14.9 – 42.6% at age of 26 weeks after flowering. Moreover, P3 can prevent 50% of cracking fruit/plant less than the control (P1). All treatments did not significantly affect on the thickness of peel fruit of Tangerine cv. Pontianak. This activity has an impact on increasing the quantity and quality production of Mandarin cv. Terigas. 

KEY WORDS: FRUIT CRACKING, MANDARIN CV. TERIGAS, TANGERINE CV. PONTIANAK, FRUIT PEE

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